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G3O5. Decrease those struggling with substance abuse

Number of deaths related to “any” opioid overdose per annum

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Story Behind the Curve

The data above represents deaths attributed to any opioid in the state of Indiana. Death certificate data are used to track underlying and contributing cause of death, in order to understand the burden of drug overdose deaths for prevention. The underlying cause of death is the disease or injury that initiated the events leading to death while the contributing causes of death are diseases or injuries that contributed to the fatal outcome. Data are collected by the IDOH Division of Vital Records. A final dataset is provided by the IDOH, Office of Data and Analytics, Data Analysis Team and analyzed by the Division of Trauma and Injury Prevention to identify overdose deaths among Indiana residents. Deaths are reported back to the county of residence of the Indiana decedent (2).

Drug overdose death counts involving any opioid include (displayed above) the following codes:

Underlying Cause of Death Codes: 

  • X40 to X44 - Accidental poisoning by drugs
  • X60 to X64 - Intentional self-poisoning by drugs
  • X85 - Assault by drug poisoning
  • Y10 to Y14 - Drug poisoning of undetermined intent

Contributing Cause of Death Codes (for Any Opioid): 

  • T40.0 - Opium
  • T40.1 - Heroin
  • T40.2 - Natural and semisynthetic opioids
  • T40.3 - Methadone
  • T40.4 - Synthetic opioids
  • T40.6 - Other unspecific narcotic


Page last updated: October 3, 2023

What Works

Drug overdose deaths can be prevented. See how CDC is working to prevent overdoses and substance use-related harms with guiding principles and strategic priorities.

Evidence-Based Strategies for Preventing Opioid Overdose

  • Targeted Naloxone Distribution  
    • Naloxone – a non-addictive, life-saving drug that can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose when administered in time. Targeted naloxone distribution programs seek to train and equip individuals who are most likely to encounter or witness an overdose—especially people who use drugs and first responders— with naloxone kits, which they can use in an emergency to save a life.
  • Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) and Medication for Opioid Use Disorder (MOUD)
    • MAT is a proven treatment for opioid use disorder. The backbone of this treatment is FDA approved medications. Methadone and buprenorphine activate opioid receptors in the brain, preventing painful opioid withdrawal symptoms without causing euphoria; naltrexone blocks the effects of opioids.
  • Academic Detailing  
    • Academic detailing consists of structured visits to healthcare providers by trained professionals. They provide tailored training and technical assistance, helping healthcare providers use best practices.
  • 911 Good Samaritan Laws  
    • The scope of 911 Good Samaritan Laws varies across U.S. states, but each is written with the goal of reducing barriers to calling 911 in the event of an overdose. This type of legislation may provide overdose victims and/or overdose bystanders with limited immunity from drug-related criminal charges and other criminal or judicial consequences that may otherwise result from calling first responders to the scene.
  • Syringe Services Programs 
    • Syringe services programs (SSPs) are community-based prevention programs that can provide a range of services, including linkage to substance use disorder treatment; access to and disposal of sterile syringes and injection equipment; testing; treatment for infectious diseases; and linkage to medical, mental health, and social services.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Evidence-Based Strategies for Preventing Opioid Overdose: What’s Working in the United States. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 


Drug overdoses are the leading cause of injury deaths in the United States. In 2021, more than 7 out of 10 drug deaths involved an opioid, primarily synthetic opioids other than methadone (1).

Illicitly manufactured fentanyl, heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine (alone or in combination) were involved in nearly 85% of drug overdose deaths in 24 states and the District of Columbia during January–June 2019. More than 3 out of 5 overdose deaths had at least one potential opportunity to link people to care before the fatal overdose or to implement life-saving actions when the fatal overdose occurred (2).


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Drug Overdose Deaths. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Overdose Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 

Corrective Action

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